Pinned Post - Flipkart vs Amazon Series

Flipkart and Focus 4 - Beware the Whispering Death

The fourth part of my series on Flipkart and its apparent loss of Focus and its battle with Amazon appeared in DNA on April 20th, 2015 . ...

Dec 29, 2013

Mahabharata Ch 59-60, Adi Parva, Sambhava Parva

[Ch 57-58 « Ch 59-60  » Ch 61-65]
This chapter marks the start of the Sambhava Parva. This parva contains 2394 shlokas and 65 chapters.
"The word sambhava means what can originate or be in existence. Hence, this parva is about the origins of the core story. It is one of the longest parvas."
Parva:Adi; Upa-parva:Sambhava; Chapter:59; Shlokas:54
Janamejaya asked Vaishampayana to recount to him, "from beginning and in detail," accounts of the births of the gods, gandharvas, etc... Vaishampayan said that Brahma had six sons. One of them, Marichi, was the father of Kashyapa. Daksha's daughters were Aditi, Diti, Danu, Kala, Anayu, Simhika, Muni, Krodha, Prava, Arishta, Vinata, Kapila, and Kadru.
"From Aditi were born the twelve adityas... Dhata, Mitra, Aryamana, Shakra, Varuna, Amsha, Bhaga, Vivasvana and Pusha. In the tenth place was Savita, the eleventh was Tvastha and the twelfth was Vishnu."

Diti had only one son - Hiranyakashyipu, who had five sons. Prahlada was the eldest son, and he had three sons - Virochana, Kumbha, and Nikumbha. Virochana's son was Bali, and Bali had one son - Bana. Danu had forty sons, danavas, which included Shambara, Namuchi, Puloman, Keshi, Durjaya, Pralamba, Vatapi, and others. Simhika gave birth to Rahu and three other sons, while Anayu had four sons - Vikshara, Bala, Vira, and Vritra.

Prava gave birth to the race of apsaras, including Rambha, Aruna, and also gandharvas like Atibahu, Haha and Huhu and Tumbura.

Thus Vaishampayana recited the history of the births of "all beings".

[Bibek Debroy informs us that "One should not expect consistency in accounts of creation."]

Parva:Adi; Upa-parva:Sambhava; Chapter:60; Shlokas:69
Continuing his account, Vaishampayana said that there are eleven rudras, sons born to Shiva through the "powers of his mind" - Mrigavyadha, Sarva, Nirriti, Aja, Ekapada, Pinaki, Dahana, Ishvara, Kapali, Sthanu, and Bhaga. Brahma had six sons - Marichi, Angiras, Atri, Pulastya, Pulaha, and Kratu. Angiras had three sons - Brihaspati, Utathya, and Samvarta.

Dakhsa was born from Brahma's right toe. Manu was another of Brahma's sons and his "sons were the eight vasus" - Dhara, Dhruva, Soma, Aha, Anila (also known as Agni), Anala, Pratyusha, and Prabhasa. Vaishampayana then recounted the sons of Dhruva (Kala - "the regulator of the worlds"), Aha (Jyoti, Shama, Shanta, and Muni), Dhara, Anala (Kumara - since he was reared by krittikas, he is also known as Kartikeya), Anila (Purojava and Avijnatagati), Pratyusha (Devala).

Brihaspati's sister became the wife of the eighth vasu, Prabhasa, and "thus was born the illustrious Vishvakarma."

Dharma emerged by cleaving Brahma's right breast, and had three sons - Shama, Kama, and Harsha. Kama's wife was Rati. Bhrigu emerged by cleaving open Brahma's heart, and his son was the learned Shukra, the preceptor of the gods and the demons. Manu's daughter Arushi became Shukra's wife, and they had a son named Ourva (another name for Chyavana). His son was Richika, and his son was Jamadagni, whose youngest son was Rama (Parashurama).

Brahma had two other sons - Dhata and Vidhata, who lived with Manu, and whose sister is Lakshmi.

Shura, the goddess of liquour, was the daughter of Jyestha and Varuna. Jyestha was born to Shukra.

Adharma - "born when hungry creatures began to devour each other for food" - and Nirriti had three sons - Bhaya, Mahabhaya, and Mrityu.
"Krodha gave birth to nine daughters who were prone to anger - Mrigi, Mrigamanda, Hari, Bhadramana, Matangi, Sharduli, Shveta, Surabhi and the famous Surasa."
So Vaishampyana continues the descriptions, and thus concludes the chapter.

These chapter summaries are based on the unabridged translation of the Mahabharata done by Dr Bibek Debroy, and published by Penguin Books India, and which I have been reviewing on my blog. The Sanskrit shlokas are from the electronic text of the Mahabharata - based on John Smith's revision of Prof. Muneo Tokunaga's version of the Mahabharata Critical Edition of the text from and copyright of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute.

© 2013, Abhinav Agarwal (अभिनव अग्रवाल). All rights reserved.